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ROLL FORMING APPLICATIONS FOR AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

ROLL FORMING APPLICATIONS FOR AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY :

 

Roll forming is a continuous profile production process to form sheet metal progressively into the desired shape with closer tolerances. The process offers several advantages such as complex geometrical shapes, high strength, dimensional accuracy, closer tolerances, and good surface finish. Several parts in the automobile body are produced with this process.

Roll forming process can easily be implemented to current production lines and synchronized with other stamping units. The pipe-shaped thin-walled cross-sections and complexly shaped profiles which are difficult to produce by other methods can be produced by roll forming. In some applications roll formed profiles have more inherent strength than those produced by other methods. Nowadays roll forming technology draws more attention than before in the automotive industry.

In this study, the roll forming process has been investigated in automotive applications and the latest developments according to the existing sheet metal forming techniques are discussed. The roll forming process is more rapid and takes less energy than extrusion. However, it requires large quantities to justify the investment cost

INTRODUCTION OF ROLL FORMING APPLICATIONS :

The roll forming process is a sheet metal forming process, which produces a more consistent part than other forming methods. It is preferable for large quantity production and long length parts. Dimensional accuracy and tolerances of the rolled parts much better than regular stamped parts. Numerous studies have been performed on the new forming technologies for car bodies such as hydro-forming, hot press forming, and roll forming. Roll forming (or roll forming) is a continuous bending process in which a long strip of coiled sheet metal moves in the sequence of rolls progressively to produce the desired shapes. Each roll sequence deforms only a shape of the bend and it continues up to reaching the desired cross-section. Roll forming is suitable for producing constant-profile parts in continuous forming with long lengths-large quantities and coil feeding and exit cutting to length held to close tolerances. Besides, notching, slotting, punching, embossing, and curving operations can easily be combined with the roll forming process to produce finished parts for manufacturing lines.

Even though, the flat steel products are approximately 35–40% of total production in North America [, the roll forming is not a common forming method. It is still considered as a new method in the automotive industry. While conventional roll forming machines produce parts whose cross sections are uniform in the longitudinal direction, nonetheless, the integrated structural skin can be designed in the vehicle body through 3D flexible roll forming techniques.  In these techniques, both constant and variable cross-sectional sized profiles are produced. Nowadays, the roll forming process is capable of producing a wide range of cross-section. The 3D roll forming has overcome the constant cross-section limits on production. Basic roll forming applications are applied on as follows:

  1. Car body and bumpers
  2. Rail body
  3. Ship construction
  4. Transport and loading/unloading equipment
  5. Electric racks, control cabinets, and storage
  6. Electric racks, control cabinets, and storage
  7. Construction industry
  8. Bicycles
  9. Beam members

In the roll forming operation, tensile and compression stresses are effective in the transition zone occurred during changing in cross-section areas in the deformation. These areas are critical regions because of excessive tensile and compression stresses

cause defects called as tearing and wrinkling, respectively. Holding force and stand movements are the main factors affecting the occurrence of failure modes; wrinkling, tearing in sheet metal parts. Improvements on defects are based on the control of material flow in the forming. Strain distribution at the transition zone was investigated for High Strength Steel (HSS) and Ultra High Strength Steel(UHSS).

A multi-stand roll forming simulation was developed for a large cross-section of the channel by using a method based on the Lagrange method in the deformable bodies mechanics [7]. In recent years, the automotive, aerospace, electronics, medical industries have used the small-diameter pipes and tubes significantly.  A modified roll forming process making welded tubes with discontinuous cross sections has been realized through forming stands equipped a feedback unit with a control system.

Forming process can be in the cold, warm, and hot conditions with respect to heat requirements. The small-diameter pipes or tubes have been produced from pre-notched sheet plates using a cold-roll forming technique. The starting temperatures of warm forming process are also above room temperature but below the recrystallization temperature.

Forming above recrystallization temperature is called as hot forming. When feedback devices are added to the roll forming process stand movements can be controlled separately. In this type of control case, critical regions like excessive tensile forces are sensed by the feedback devices and it is possible that the controller can manipulate trajectory of the stands to eliminate error between desired and current profile during the process synchronously. Through a cost calculation tool in the designing progress, comparisons on the production methods of the structural body parts in the automotive industry show that roll forming has a high potential to meet the continuously increasing demands on safety, comfort, ecological performance, high flexibility, and low-cost requirements with novel approaches.

Roll forming is useful due to the fact that the whole forming processes are in a single forming operation. An automobile wheel fabrication is obtained in single step operation using Russian AVT alloy, a 6010 aluminum alloy equivalent. In this context studies on the new profile developments produced with lightweight materials by roll forming are covered with analytics, experiments, and FE analysis. The microstructure is also important on the strain and stress distributions and the displacements. The UHSS steel is another widely used material in the automotive industry and the roll forming is a suitable method on the UHSS.

The roll forming is an efficient, reliable process on the bumper impact bars, associated brackets, and fascia supports less than 1 mm thick UHSS. Spring back is one of the likely defects caused by bending in the roll forming. A comparison was performed on the samples of automotive steels to be able to select suitable material.

Low plasticity and ductility of materials are serious limitations on forming. These limitations constrain the usage of the HSS but it is overcoming partially through a hot roll forming process. For a roll forming design process, a roll flower pattern and proper stand sequences are important to make fine tuning on parameters that affect quality. It is possible to determine through longitudinal strain and deformation analyses. A successful roll forming technique different from the conventional roll forming to manufacture automotive bumpers from the HSS steel was described with desired formability parameters. In recent years, materials for automotive components have been gradually changed from steels to aluminum for reducing the total weight of a car but fracture or buckling are other defects encountered in the roll forming of the aluminum alloys. Optimization methods are popular to make process parameters improved and preferred frequently in the designing process. Optimization of the forming process minimizes the number of stands to be used and residual stresses in the final product. Sheet metal stamping is a common forming process to produce structural parts for the automotive body.

Hydroforming is also used to produce some of the automotive parts. The roll forming is an alternative method to these methods owing to the fact that it is cost effective in high volume production and highly flexible. The roll formed parts used in the transportation industry are auto bodies, rail profiles, highway barrier profiles, roof liner, and door rafters. denotes the common shapes of roll formed parts at vehicles. Roll formed and stamped regions on a vehicle’s space frame are seen in bellow.

ROLL FORMING APPLICATIONS

ROLL FORMING APPLICATIONS FOR AUTOMOTIVE

Roll formed cross-sections for automobiles/commercial vehicles The Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) tubes are principally applied as side impact door beams, seat structures, and IP beams in the automobiles. The shapes of the tubes may become circular, square, oval, and tapered tube sections and are produced in subsequent stages.

CONCLUSION OF ROLL FORMING APPLICATIONS FOR INDUSTRY

the roll forming process for the automotive industries was investigated. Their advantages and limitations were evaluated. Current trend reveals that the process in the automotive industry will be very common in the near future. When the precise, long, and high strength body parts are required in large quantity, the roll forming process will be the ultimate choice.

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Roll Forming Machines

Advantages of Roll Forming :

Advantages of Roll Forming :

  • The roll forming process allows operations such as punching, notching, and welding to be performed in-line. Labor cost and time for secondary operations are reduced or eliminated, reducing part costs.
  • Roll form tooling allows for a high degree of flexibility. A single set of roll form tools will make almost any length of the same cross-section. Multiple sets of tools for varying length parts are not required.
  • Roll forming can provide better dimensional control than other competing metal forming processes.
  • Repeatability is inherent in the process, allowing easier assembly of roll formed parts into your finished product, and minimizing problems due to “standard” tolerance build up.

Roll Forming Process

Roll forming steel is essentially a continuous bending operation performed on metal strip at room temperature. Tandem sets of rolls progressively shape the metal until the desired cross-sectional profile is achieved.

Roll forming is ideal for producing parts with long lengths or in large quantities. It can also produce parts of multiple lengths from the same tooling. Virtually any material that can be formed using sheet forming techniques can also be roll formed. Roll forming may also be an excellent solution whenever the consistency of the cross-sectional profile is critical.

Benefits of Roll Forming

High productivity rate as compared to other manufacturing processes

Able to combine multiple manufacturing operations in-line with the roll forming stations greatly reducing total manufacturing costs

Reduces handling, packaging and shipping costs

Produces parts of various lengths from the same roll sets

Able to produce parts with different hole patterns from the same roll sets

Capable of eliminating supplemental operations (e.g. cutting-to-length, drilling, splicing, etc.)

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Roll Forming Machine Basics parts and how Roll Forming Machines Work:

All Roll forming machine in the industry has the same basic design, a roll forming machine includes:

DE COILER: to load raw material coil on that and open coil to sheet, based on forming speed

Feeding roller and leveling: after recoiler material should be straightening and leveling before forming to has a better result from forming steps, so we add leveling station in first part of a machine, but mostly is used for more than 1 mm thickness,

Pre-punching and marking: some of the wholes should punch before forming based on design, also upon requirement, we will add marking roller before forming stations,

Forming stations: the number of stations come from our experienced design DPT, based on thickness and shape each drawing need different forming stations number,

Torque head or final guide: in any roll forming machine last station before cutting should be torque head, to modify length twisting and turning to have final 6-meter length in standard accuracy and shape.

Cutting or saw machine: in end of forming machine we install the cutting system that’s hydraulic or mechanic saw, and it can be flying to make non-stop cutting, it’s up to forming machine speed and budget requirement,

Electronic cabinet: in developed manufacture such as LOTOS use PLC CONTROL to program and set machine, this is the machine brain for control and manage punching, cutting, speed, feeding.

In LOTOSFORMING we select match HDMI, DRIVE, PLC, ENCODER with machine electronic motor to reduce PLC error as much as it can.

Roll Forming Machine  Manufacture Development:

In 2019 any roll forming manufacturer doesn’t use CAD/CAM design software cannot produce long term performance roll forming machines, roll forming design  is one of difficult machinery in industry that definitely need CAD/CAM software to analyses and simulation steel with each station before producing, also for running roll forming machine nowadays most of the manufacture use PLC control to have less tolerance in final products, 

So to have developed manufacture for roll forming machine, such as LOTOSFORMING, should have a great design team with enough experience on CAD/CAM software in roller drawing.

Roll Forming Machine Tolerances and accuracy:

To compare roll forming producing tolerance with old way machinery with shearing and break machines, for sure roll forming accuracy is really much higher than any other way, but during the forming station also should care about material reaction and spring back to reduce tolerance,

The advantages of Roll Forming Machines

Except for benefits we explained in previous comments and posts:

  1. Roll forming is energy efficient, cause in forming station we won’t use any heating during forming, most of forming machine work in normal room temperature.
  2. Also based on CNC control it also reduces worker in a factory.
  3.  Before we design roller we will calculate input material width to make waste as less as it can.

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Custom Roll Forming Processes

Roll Forming Process

Roll forming also spelled roll forming, is a type of rolling involving the continuous bending of a long strip of sheet metal (typically coiled steel) into the desired cross-section. Roll forming involves uncoiling a long strip of metal and sending it through several stacks of rollers set up in a long line. It is performed at room temperature, hence the moniker ‘cold’, which is often dropped. Roll forming at room temperature maintains or even improves the properties of the feedstock material. The strip passes through sets of rolls mounted on consecutive stands, each set performing only an incremental part of the bend until the desired cross-section (profile) is obtained. Roll forming is ideal for producing constant-profile parts with long lengths and in large quantities.

Roll forming
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